The Long Term Effects of Skewed Briefing Patterns in South Africa and Some Solutions – Vuyani Ngalwana SC

Recently, Judge Mandlenkosi Motha of the Pretoria High Court caused something of a stir when he directed legal practitioners – all white – who appeared before him in a black economic empowerment case to explain the lack of race diversity in their legal teams.

The outrage is, in my view, misdirected, tone deaf, shortsighted and lacks discernment in many fundamental respects. I discuss these in this paper, citing observations made in the past by the Constitutional Court, the Judge President of the busiest courts in South Africa, and other eminent jurists on the subject of Transformation and its Legitimacy.

I submit that skewed briefing patterns that favour white legal practitioners are a legitimate concern that should be addressed expeditiously and sustainably because of the deleterious effects they have on the development of our jurisprudence and on the legitimacy and competence of the Judiciary in the long run, and the explicitly racist stereotype they reinforce in the legal profession.

I then offer some solutions and invite legal practitioners to engage with this content so that we can arrive at a solution that is sustainable and to the benefit, ultimately, of the country.

Read Full paper here: The Long Term Consequences of Skewed Briefing Patterns in SA & Some Solutions

You may also be interested in these:

Legitimacy, Transformation and Need for Change at the Bar

By |2024-03-10T14:41:28+02:00March 10th, 2024|Analyses and Reviews|Comments Off on The Long Term Effects of Skewed Briefing Patterns in South Africa and Some Solutions – Vuyani Ngalwana SC

When Race Politics Drives Journalism: A Response to a Takedown

French social psychologist, Gustave Le Bon (1841 – 1931) and American “public relations” theorist, Edward Bernays (1891 – 1995), are generally regarded as propaganda scholars. Their works have been consulted by numerous governments and corporations around the world on how to influence group psychology by manipulating the content of the information that the public consumes. This is a phenomenon colloquially known as propaganda.

In his seminal work, La Psychologie des Foules (1895) – the English translation of which was first published in 1896 under the title, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind – Le Bon wrote about the power to the human psyche of the repetition of an idea or statement. (see The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (Boomer Books, Waking Lion Press, 2006 ed), ch 7: “The Leaders of Crowds and Their Means of Persuasion”, pp 98-99).

Here is some of what he wrote on the power of repetition:

  • “Affirmation, however, has no real influence unless it be constantly repeated, and so far as possible in the same terms . . .”.
  • “The thing affirmed comes by repetition to fix itself in the mind in such a way that it is accepted in the end as a demonstrated truth. . .”
  • “This power [of repetition] is due to the fact that the repeated statement is embedded in the long run in those profound regions of our unconscious selves in which the motives of our actions are forged. At the end of a certain time we have forgotten who is the author of the repeated assertion, and we finish by believing it. . .”.
  • “If we always read in the same papers that A is an arrant scamp and B a most honest man we finish by being convinced that this is the truth, unless, indeed, we are given to reading another paper of the contrary opinion, in which the two qualifications are reversed. . .”.
  •  “When an affirmation has been sufficiently repeated and there is unanimity in this repetition . . . what is called a current of opinion is formed and the powerful mechanism of contagion intervenes. . .”.

It is in this context that I consider the attack by Marianne Thamm, a white woman who writes for the Daily Maverick, on a select group of Black advocates in an article titled The major foes of South Africa’s constitutional democracy star in Busisiwe Mkhwebane’s Fight of a Lifetime.

The piece comes on the back of “evidence” apparently presented by evidence leaders at the parliamentary inquiry into the fitness of the Public Protector to hold office. It is the presentation of that “evidence” for all to see that set in motion a train of events, including publication of this piece, with potentially ruinous consequences for the Black advocates concerned.

This does not appear to be by accident. It is difficult not to conclude that it may be the beginning of the constant repetition of a narrative aimed at “cancelling” the targeted Black advocates. All four Black Senior Counsel are currently leading in various ongoing litigation against government and the white business establishment on behalf of clients who have a right to legal representation in our democracy:

  • Mpofu SC represents the Public Protector in her impeachment inquiry by a parliamentary committee and has successfully challenged her unlawful suspension by the President a day after she announced that she was investigating his “Dollargate” This is the scandal that threatens to derail the President’s bid for a second term as President. Mpofu SC also represents former President Jacob Zuma in his criminal trial by the state, and in the private prosecution of a senior public prosecutor and a self-styled “legal” journalist. He also represented the former President in that unprecedented conviction and sentencing of a private citizen by the apex court.
  • Sikhakhane SC represents Mr Arthur Fraser (former State Security Agency Director-General) who lay criminal charges against the President in relation to his “Dollargate” or PhalaPhala scandal which may possibly scupper his ambition for a second term as President. He also represented former President Zuma at the State Capture Commission and sought recusal of the (now) Chief Justice. Also among his clients is the Sekunjalo Group of Companies in the main proceedings of the Equality Court against the banks and financial industry regulators including the South African Reserve Bank, the Financial Sector Conduct Authority and the Financial Intelligence Centre.
  • Masuku SC also represents former President Zuma in his criminal trial. He also leads a team that is challenging the review of the Mpati Commission of Inquiry on behalf of the Sekunjalo Group of Companies which are being targeted for closure by the banks and mainstream media, like the Daily Maverick, in South Africa. The banks and mainstream media are using the Mpati Report as a basis for targeting the Group. Masuku SC also represents Judge President Hlophe of the Western Cape High Court who has been in the crosshairs of certain persons in the legal profession.
  • Ngalwana SC represents the Sekunjalo Group of Companies against the banks which closed the Group’s bank accounts on the basis, principally, of the Mpati Report. The Equality Court and the Competition Tribunal have ordered the re-opening of these accounts and have interdicted the banks from closing them. Some of the banks are challenging the Competition Tribunal’s decision on review and appeal. Ngalwana is also leading a team that is challenging the State Capture Commission on review. He also leads a team challenging the freezing out of Black companies from state contracts. He has successfully lodged complaints against 2 white judges for gross misconduct and is a vocal opponent of the President’s incumbency for reasons he has articulated on social media.

It would be naïve to exclude this context when considering the Daily Maverick attack on these targeted Black advocates. The only reasonable conclusion would be that the tainting of these targeted Black advocates by constant repetition in the media (by innuendo since there is no evidence of criminality or unprofessional conduct) that we are “beneficiaries” of monies “funnelled” through the office of the Public Protector. That way, it is hoped that our voices will be muted and our professional standing as Officers of the Court is forever compromised. The ripple effect of that is obvious, and that is probably why the names of less senior advocates on brief with us in various matters have also been unfairly published. Either they are also accused of malfeasance or, more likely, the message seems to be a warning to them not to associate with us.


Neither the journalist nor the evidence leaders cared to hear the side of the targeted Black advocates on the “facts” before putting out material that suggestive of professional misconduct in the public domain. Neither notice nor hearing was afforded. As it turns out – at least in my case – the alleged “facts” are wrong. The leading evidence leader has admitted as much to me that “the figure was incorrect”, and that she will “correct it”.

But that’s hardly the point. Why was it necessary for the evidence leaders to parade our names (leaving out many others, including white Counsel) in their pursuit of proving the Public Protector unfit to hold office? Why was it necessary for them to do this even without giving us notice? Why couldn’t they verify with us the accuracy of the “facts” on which they rely before going public with such potentially damaging information?

And these are not even allegations or accusation. In my profession, there is a practice known as “self-reporting” if there is an accusation or allegation of unethical conduct, but which has not been formally reported to the Bar Council, or if Counsel suspects there may be something possibly amiss in his or her own conduct that may require the attention of the professional committee. The expectation is that Counsel knows (or should reasonably know) when a matter of his or her own conduct requires the attention of the Bar Council. One need not first be reported.

So, with that in mind, I asked the evidence leader directly:

“Are you accusing me of anything? If so, of what exactly? I ask so that I can decide how to approach what you did this past week.”

Her answer was an emphatic: “No I am not accusing u of anything”.

Then she apologised and said she will do it openly during the parliamentary committee sitting. I look forward to learning of the precise content of the apology.

As part of proving their case that Adv Mkhwebane is not fit to hold office, the evidence leaders (both advocates) had it in their heads that it would be a good idea to expose for public consumption the fees that a select number of Black Counsel had earned from rendering legal services to the Public Protector on instruction from various attorneys (8 in my case) to the glaringly obvious lack of attention on white counsel, white law firms and other black counsel who, it seems in their view, do not fit the narrative they seem intent on putting forth. Did they do this deliberately? The lack of focus on white counsel and white firms makes the attention on targeted Black Counsel a racially slanted exercise.

Anyway, I digress. My purpose here is not to engage with the unpardonably louche conduct of the evidence leaders. I have started a process of dealing with that elsewhere. My focus is the Daily Maverick takedown of specifically targeted Black advocates for doing what advocates in the referral profession do: render legal services to a client through an instructing attorney on fees agreed in advance with the instructing attorney.

That the targeted Black advocates should earn a fee, over a period [4 years and 5 months in my case], from rendering legal services to an institution that is funded by government (ultimately taxpayers) seems to stretch the bounds of credulity for this white journalist. Her interest seems to have been triggered by the amounts the targeted Black advocates are alleged to have earned: “millions of rand”, she pronounces with apparent disgust. One could only imagine what her reaction would be if she were to hear the amounts the white advocates earned.

Labelling these targeted Black advocates variously as “those who are opposed to accountable government”, “a cluster of well-known professionals” and “an A-list of high-powered beneficiaries”, she spares hardly an adjective or verb that is suggestive of criminality. For example, according to her, these targeted Black advocates did not earn their fees from rendering legal services. Instead, they “benefitted handsomely” from the litigation “funnelled through” the Public Protector’s office.

By innuendo, these carefully chosen words are intended to suggest malfeasance or corruption or worse. But on what evidence? Did she even bother to ask the targeted Black advocates she so callously defames? Of course not. That would spoil her broth.

Notice the careful choice of the verb “funnelled”. It seems intended to create the impression that these are monies diverted from elsewhere. Why? Well, because these Black advocates “lost all these cases” – a lie of course, but why would she let facts get in the way of a good yarn?

Quite apart from the fact-free merits of the publication, let us consider the journalistic value of the article.


The Daily Maverick article is a wide-ranging piece of work, although labelling it as “work” is rather charitable. The piece lurches imperceptibly from partisan political commentary to didactic UNreasoning to what inevitably comes across as a white superiority sermon. As a journalistic piece it is incoherent, a language understood only by fellow travellers. As a propaganda tool it is blunt and unlikely to persuade a discerning reader.

It is difficult to understand how this piece made it past the sub-editor’s desk, let alone being published. Surely the editor could discern the significant reputational risk to the media house? Perhaps not? Perhaps this is the sort of unbridled attack on Blackness that we should come to expect from the publication?

The measure of a good script is usually a coherent plot. That normally comprises a clear thesis, focused and unwavering reasoning aimed at proving the thesis, and a conclusion that brings everything to a logical end.

Writers are often encouraged to flesh out the plot with colourful characters and vivid settings that will enhance the story and grab the reader’s attention. The journalist does this with aplomb. Characters like Adolf Hitler feature prominently alongside Black advocates. The imagery is disturbing. But that is the point: to shock and awe and, ultimately, cancel the targeted Black advocates by resorting to thoroughly disreputable imagery.

In a work of fiction, this is well and good. But playing Russian roulette with people’s professional careers that could trigger all forms of potentially ruinous consequences is just mean-spirited. Already, there are people who believe – simply on the basis of innuendo – that these targeted Black advocates “looted” the public purse.

But even in a work of fiction – which this article largely is – staying focused on the thesis is key. Nothing is worse than a good plot idea that grows ever more chaotic as the story develops. But Daily Maverick‘s Marrianne Thamm – who has apparently written books – appears to have suspended this rudimentary literary exploit as she lurches directionless from one chaotic sub-plot to the next in quick succession.

For example, what has Ngalwana’s representation of Dr Iqbal SURVÉ to do with Adv Mkhwebane’s fitness for office? Ah! Rogue by association. That’s it. If Ngalwana represented Mkhwebane and now represents Dr Iqbal SURVÉ, then abracadabra, Ngalwana must be a rogue. “Dots have joined …”, she claims triumphantly. Such is the didactic UNreasoning of the piece.

Stumbling from, at once, excoriating and praising politicians (Malema, Sisulu, Zuma – even Pallo Jordan is dusted off from politico-academic oblivion in order to make a desperate point about the Freedom Charter somehow, conveniently, birthing the Constitution) to judges (Hlophe and Sachs) to lawyers (Mpofu, Sikhakhane, Ngalwana, Xulu, Masuku, Seanego – ignorantly making no distinction between attorneys’ and advocates’ roles, if she even understands the distinction) the piece meanders haplessly into a lump of shapeless bile – which in itself inadvertently paints the writer as a foe of democracy.

So, what next? Does one sue for defamation? Perhaps. But the damage is done. No amount of court-awarded damages will undo it. The writer and her lawyers know this. To her and her bosses R500,000 is a small price to pay for the damage they wanted so desperately to inflict on those they consider out of step with their view of the world they still want maintained for posterity. An apology? A retraction? From a media house? What good will that do in a scandal-enthused public?

What about defamation against evidence leaders? Does parliamentary privilege shield them in this case? Is that why they felt no compunction in doing what they did? I find it difficult to believe that a member of the Bar (as I know it) would deliberately seek to malign colleagues in this fashion. At least that is the member of the Bar in me. I suppose time and further developments will prove what the correct position is. But can the same be said of a journalist?

One thing is clear, though. The hard work of freeing South Africa from the shackles of totalitarianism of all sorts continues.

By |2022-11-09T14:43:42+02:00November 9th, 2022|Blog, General, News|1 Comment

Transformative Social Change and the Role of the Judge in Post-Apartheid South Africa – A Lecture by Justice Dunstan Mlambo, Judge President of the Gauteng High Courts, South Africas

In his 1946 essay on Politics and the English Language, George Orwell succeeded in surgically peeling off the veneer of prosaic respectability from what passes for “modern” English to expose the ugly lies ignominiously hidden beneath.

Mourning the perversion of the English language – ostensibly in the name of modernism but, in truth, with a view to obfuscating and deceiving – he observed that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes.

Perhaps unfairly, Orwell’s essay sprang to mind when I read a take by the Daily Maverick on a lecture by Judge President Mlambo. I knew immediately that I had to get my hands on it and read it myself. A quote in the Daily Maverick piece left me puzzled and wishing to understand more.

So, I set out to find the lecture itself, and sat down to read it. Wow!

Daily Maverick quoted the Judge President as saying:

“There are no longer assertions that the law can be kept isolated from politics; while they are not the same they are necessarily and inherently linked”

In fact, what the Judge President said – quoting former Chief Justice Langa – was this:

“[T]here is no longer place for assertions that the law can be kept isolated from politics.  While they are not the same, they are inherently and necessarily linked”

Read the two quotes again, carefully, especially the first part of each.

A statement that “there are no longer assertions” about a particular worldview is a very different proposition from a statement that says “there is no longer a place for assertions” of that particular worldview. The former is a statement of fact, and whether or not the fact is well-founded is something that can be pursued with the speaker by fact checkers. The latter, however, is the expression of an opinion which is not measured for its plausibility merely by checking facts. One has to go beyond that and probe the reasoning. Facts answer to questions like “what”, “when”, “where” “who”, “how”. Opinions answer to “why”.

Whether or not there are still assertions that law can be kept isolated from politics is to me irrelevant. As a proposition of fact it does nothing to stimulate the necessary national debate and enquiry about whether or not politics plays a role in the determination of cases in the course of Judges applying, in their minds, the law. Of much interest to me, as a lawyer who appears regularly in South African courts, is the proposition that there is no longer a place for assertions that the law can be kept isolated from politics, and that these are inherently and necessarily linked. Now, that piques my interest.

The Daily Maverick piece left me puzzled and wanting to understand more about the lecture because there is a clear dissonance (at least to me) between the first part of the quote and the second. If there are no longer assertions that law can be kept isolated from politics, then to what end must the reader be told in the same sentence that these two are inherently and necessarily linked, except to call readers to arms to demand that assertions that law can be kept isolated from politics remain a distant memory? In other words, why would the speaker tell me that law and politics are inherently and necessarily linked if he wants to discourage me from asserting that law can be kept isolated from politics? It is this disconnect in the Daily Maverick piece that piqued my interest.

Whether the disconnect is deliberate or a function of editorial negligence I do not know. I am just happy I picked up on it and read the lecture myself.

I have always maintained that Judges should emerge from behind their judicial shield and express their worldview on matters of public interest. The bench is not a monastery or convent where Judges have taken a religious vow not to engage in conversations about matters of national interest wherever they find themselves. They are citizens with socio-political interests and preferences before they become Judges. Those interests and preferences do not vanish upon people donning judicial robes or taking the oath to uphold the Constitution.

Judges are also fathers, mothers, sons, daughters, wives, husbands and taxpayers and are also affected by politics as the rest of us. So, to believe that Judges are immune to political influence or consideration – whether by design or by coincidence – when determining some cases, is in my view astonishing naivete.

That is why the lecture of the Judge President on Transformative Constitutionalism, and the role of Judges in it, comes as a welcome relief for me from the suffocating pretence by many members of the public that Judges are above politics. How can they be when they are political beings, appointed by a politician through a political process and in terms of a document that is a product of political detante: the Constitution?

By saying this I do not for a moment suggest that Judges should turn politicians or that they are politicians. Far from it. The point I make is that Judges are creatures of politics and cannot escape politics whether they wish to do so or not. It is not in their hands. It is in the nature of their work and in the subconscious mind of human beings with socio-economic and political experiences, interests and preferences.

As I understand the Judge President, he posits that Judges in post-apartheid South Africa must, of necessity, break from the self-imposed judicial strictures of unyielding notions of un-rehabilitated common law. He points to a number of cases (known to lawyers who practise in these courts) to demonstrate the reluctance of some Judges to unshackle their judicial grounding from common law that has been overtaken by the new constitutional grundnorm or ethos. The notion that the law exists in a gilded world of its own, unsullied by the politics of the day, is not only imagined by those who hold that view; it is also an impediment to Transformative Constitutionalism. That is what I understand the Judge President as saying.

To that end, the Judge President calls in aid cases like Beadica, a Constitutional Court judgment that reminds Judges that they

“must not lose sight of the transformative mandate of our Constitution.  Transformative adjudication requires courts to “search for substantive justice, which is to be inferred from the foundational values of the Constitution . . . that is the injunction of the Constitution – transformation.”

The idea that law and politics should not mix, and that Judges should steer clear of politics, is in my view uninformed. Again, by that thesis one is not saying Judges should turn politicians. But what Judges cannot avoid is make decisions steeped in politics. Whether that is by design or by coincidence only the Judge in question will know. For example, when two factions of a political party battle in court for the leadership of that party, and the court finds in favour of one faction, that decision aides a political project – whether the Judge intended it or not.

I think time has come for us all to disabuse ourselves of the notion that law and politics do not mix. They often do. To suggest otherwise is to deceive ourselves. As Chief Justice Langa himself said those many years ago, and now endorsed by the Judge President, law and politics are inherently and necessarily linked. It is naive to believe that the determination of cases, especially those engaging socio-economic  and political rights, is done shorn of political considerations. As the Judge President himself says:

“Judges should take note that every common law case is an opportunity to develop the common law and to construct social and economic relationships in one way or another consonant with the transformative agenda of the Constitution.  Every common law decision has implications that are political, moral, economic and distributive

In my view, if South Africa is to reverse (or at the very least ameliorate) the still lingering vestiges of apartheid, we need Judges who will not lose sight of the transformative mandate of the Constitution; Judges who will actively go in search of substantive justice informed by the foundational values of the Constitution: equality, human dignity, advancement of human rights and freedoms for those historically and currently marginalised or targeted for exclusion in all aspects of life in South Africa. That object cannot be fulfilled by a judiciary that is politically inert or, worse still, a judiciary that is still trapped in the politics that was dominant in 1985.

At some stage, the unpalatable but necessary task of an audit of Judges’ political persuasion will have to be embarked upon if Transformative Constitutionalism is to be realised. Until then, all we shall be doing is tinker at the edges with a system of oppression that continues to wreak havoc with the lives of the very category of persons the Constitution professes to protect and advance.

As Justice Madlanga of the Constitutional Court of South Africa has said:

“A judge’s make-up, outlook on life and indeed entire being follow her or him. Judges cannot be expected to entirely jettison all of their [subconscious] biases and perspectives about the world upon stepping into their judicial roles because meeting such a standard would be a super-human feat.”

If that is so, then what South Africa needs are not politically inert Judges but Judges whose politics aligns with the aspirations and healing of ordinary black people who still bear the scars of apartheid and continue to suffer the indignities of that system even under what is supposed to be a constitutional state founded on a constitutional ethos where everyone has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law, but for whom that is merely a promise in a document.

It was President Nelson Mandela himself, addressing the then Law Society of the Transvaal in 1993, who said:

“But at the time of the worst excesses of apartheid, judges and lawyers on the whole remained silent. Judges, magistrates and prosecutors enforced apartheid laws without protest. Unwarranted sentences were called for and imposed for contravention of statutes passed to uphold apartheid.”

Will the same one day be said of contemporary South African Judges who remain silent in the face of the worst excesses of big business and the executive, putting up their judicial shield of “see no evil, speak no evil” as an excuse for not engaging publicly? Time will tell.

But the Judge President’s lecture is not just about politics and law. This just happens to be the theme that has piqued my curiosity and which, in my view, deserves closer scrutiny.

Read Full Lecture here: Transformative Social Change and the Role of the Judge in Post-Apartheid South Africa

You may also be interested in these:

SAJEI_Journal_-_Vol_1_-_Issue_1 Original article at page 48

Judging Judges_ Empathy as the Litmus Test for Impartiality

By |2022-04-03T09:49:04+02:00April 3rd, 2022|Analyses and Reviews|Comments Off on Transformative Social Change and the Role of the Judge in Post-Apartheid South Africa – A Lecture by Justice Dunstan Mlambo, Judge President of the Gauteng High Courts, South Africas
Go to Top